Precious Stones

Precious stones such as diamonds, emeralds, rubies, and sapphires are considered to be precious, but is the list limited to these four? In the following articles, you will learn what gems are, what are their characteristics and properties, and why they are so expensive.

Top 10 Precious Stones

It’s not a secret for anyone what Precious Stones of the 1st order look like, but not everyone has an idea about the rest of the minerals from the list below.


Diamonds have always been the most coveted among precious stones. As you know, this is a mineral with a reference hardness of 10 points. There are colorless and colored (yellow, pink, blue, red, etc.) diamonds. The latter, especially red and blue, are valued more than the rest.


Deep green emeralds Precious Stones are so opulent that it has given rise to the new color term “emerald”. The stone is a representative of the beryl group. Colombian emeralds are especially valued. In the Russian Empire, only members of the imperial family had the right to wear these stones. Due to the fragility of the mineral, not every fixer will undertake to work with it. Since most of these stones have many inclusions, flawless samples of dense tone weighing from 5 carats are more expensive than diamonds.


Rubies are called red Precious Stones. Rubies from Myanmar are considered the highest quality, it is there that stones of the “pigeon blood” color are mined. And in 2015, a new ruby ​​deposit was discovered in Greenland.

Blue sapphire

Mineralogists call sapphire only the blue variety of Precious Stones. The best are cornflower blue sapphires of medium saturation. The most expensive and high-quality stones are mined in Kashmir. The largest blue sapphire is the carved Millennium Sapphire weighing 61,500 carats. Before cutting, the find weighed 90,000 carats.

Colored sapphires

Gemologists single out colored stones separately from blue precious corundum, and here the palette is quite wide: these are yellow, pink, orange, and green sapphires. Madagascar remains the main supplier of colored sapphires Precious Stones to the world market.


A carat of tanzanite Precious Stones is valued at between $300 and $2,000. First of all, the price is influenced by the color of the stone, which can be Yellow Tanzanite, blue-violet, purple, blue, olive, and sometimes pink. There are also colorless tanzanites. The crystals are almost 100% transparent. The hallmark of tanzanite is trichroism, that is, the ability of the mineral to change color three times depending on how you look at it: from olive to blue-violet and then to red-raspberry-violet.


Alexandrite, first discovered in Russia, is a variety of chrysoberyl. The mineral was named after Tsarevich Alexander. Later, after becoming emperor, Alexander II wore an alexandrite ring all the time. The main feature of the stone is the color reverse from greenish-blue in daylight to crimson red in artificial (alexandrite effect).

Noble black opal

Noble opals, including black, are valued primarily for their ability to opalescent – to play with all the colors of the rainbow. The mineral acquired this ability due to large globules in the structure. At the same time, flashes of color come from the inside, and the overflows are soft and gentle. Precious Stones Opal is very often counterfeited, for fakes and imitations, reflections come from the very surface. The largest noble black opal ever discovered is the Lady of Glengarry weighing 1,520 carats.


Green garnet, the so-called Ural emerald. The unique feature of these Tier III Precious Stones is their high dispersion, which is superior to that of a diamond. Demantoid often has fibrous inclusions of golden byssolite, and this looks very beautiful. In addition, it is rare, therefore, by value, the demantoid is classified as a precious stone.


Pale pink Precious Stones transparent kunzite was Jacqueline Kennedy’s favorite stone. This gem variety of spodumene quickly gained popularity thanks to the support and publicity of Tiffany & Co. Some of the most beautiful specimens come from Brazil. Kunzite has the property of pleochroism – it is able to change color depending on which side to look at the crystal. Good hardness (7 points) allows you to wear any jewelry with this stone without fear.

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